1999: In Seattle, Washington, protests against the World Trade Organization meeting by anti-globalization protesters catch police unprepared and force the cancellation of opening ceremonies for the meetings. Even the lowest estimates placed the number of protesters at more than 40,000, with 157 people ultimately being arrested. Police spent much of the afternoon and evening clearing the city's streets and Seattle mayor Paul Schell declared a state of emergency and imposed a curfew and a 50-block "No-Protest Zone." Damage to businesses from vandalism and lost sales associated with the protests was estimated at around $20 million. In the wake of the incident and because of controversy over the city's response, Seattle Police Chief Norm Stamper eventually resigned.