U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum
1942: The Germans begin sending Jews to the Auschwitz II–Birkenau extermination camp in Poland. Through late 1944, 1.3 million prisoners died at the camp, most of them in its gas chambers. Those not killed in the gas chambers died of starvation, forced labor, infectious diseases, individual executions and medical experiments. On Jan. 27, 1945, Auschwitz was liberated by Soviet troops, a day commemorated around the world as International Holocaust Remembrance Day.